The MVMA Board of Directors has approved official Association positions on the following topics:

Alternative and Complimentary Therapies
Animal Abuse
Animal Biological Products
Animal Fighting
Animals in Education and Research
Animal Sentience
Animal Welfare Principles
Disposition of Deceased Pets
Drug and Hormone Use
Ear Cropping and Tail Docking
Euthanasia
Feeding Wild Deer
Feline Rabies
Mandatory Continuing Education
Microchip and Animal Identification
Pet Ownership
Recommended Record Requirements for Food Animal Practices


ALTERNATIVE and COMPLIMENTARY THERAPIES

Acupuncture Therapy in Animals
Manipulative Therapy & Update

ANIMAL ABUSE

Addressing Suspected Animal Abuse in Practice

ANIMAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS

Sale & Use of Animal Biological Products
Considerations Before Promoting Biological Products

ANIMAL FIGHTING

Position Statement on Animal Fighting

ANIMALS in EDUCATION and RESEARCH

The Recommended Use of Animals in Education and Research

ANIMAL SENTIENCE

Position Statement on Animal Sentience

ANIMAL WELFARE PRINCIPLES

Integrated Principles for Developing and Evaluating Policies, Resolutions and Actions

DISPOSITION of DECEASED PETS

Recommended Policy Regarding Disclosure

DRUGS and HORMONE USE

Delegation of the Use of Drugs in Animal Control

EAR CROPPING and TAIL DOCKING

Recommendation Regarding Practice Policy

EUTHANASIA

Euthanasia of Dogs and Cats in Animal Shelters

FEEDING WILD DEER

Concern Regarding Spreading Diseases

MANDATORY CONTINUING EDUCATION

In Support of Mandatory CE for Michigan Veterinarians

MICROCHIP and ANIMAL IDENTIFICATION

Microchip Identification of Animals
Microchip Implantation in Companion Animals

 PET OWNERSHIP

Dangerous Dog Legislation
Ownership of Dangerous Exotic Animals
Ownership of Wild Canine Hybrids
Pets as Property - Guardianship
Spay and Neuter Age

RABIES

Feline Rabies

 REQUIREMENTS FOR FOOD ANIMAL PRACTICES

Recommended Record Requirements for Food Animal Practices


Acupuncture Therapy in Animals

Approved by the MVMA Board of Directors on 3/11/98

The treatment of nonhuman animals by acupuncture is the practice of veterinary medicine and to be performed only by licensed veterinarians who have received training in this modality. It is recommended that further research be conducted on veterinary acupuncture to evaluate efficacy, indications, and limitations.

Reviewed 5/17/06 Companion Animal Practice Committee

Manipulative Therapy in Animals

Approved by the MVMA Board of Directors 12/4/96

The examination, diagnosis and treatment of nonhuman animals through manipulation and adjustments of the spine, specific joints, cranial sutures, or other tissue, is the practice of veterinary medicine and to be performed only by licensed veterinarians. It is recommended that further research be conducted on veterinary manipulative therapy to evaluate efficacy, indications, and limitations.

Revised 9/23/98

MOTION WITH SECOND that the following position statement is adopted:
The examination, diagnosis and treatment of nonhuman animals through manipulation and adjustments of the spine, specific joints, cranial sutures, or other tissue, is the practice of veterinary medicine and to be performed only by licensed veterinarians or licensed chiropractors working under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian.

Motion passed.

Reviewed 5/17/06 Companion Animal Practice Committee

Addressing Suspected Animal Abuse in Practice

Revised by the MVMA Animal Welfare Committee on 8/30/12
Approved by the MVMA Board of Directors on 9/27/12

Animal abuse ranges from minor neglect to willful and malicious intent to harm. Animal abuse is often an indicator of other forms of violence and studies have shown that there is a correlation between animal and human abuse. While neglectful acts may be unintentional and related to ignorance or lack of education, intentional forms of animal abuse cannot be tolerated.

Since veterinarians have a responsibility to both animals and the public, and may be the first contact with an abused animal, they should take an active role in detecting, recognizing, preventing, and reporting animal abuse.

The veterinary profession should educate its members to recognize, document and report animal abuse, develop forensic models, discuss legislation concerning reporting by veterinarians, and collaborate with other animal and human welfare groups and professionals within communities to eliminate animal abuse. 

Sale & Use of Animal Biological Products

Approved by the MVMA Board of Directors on 3/13/91

RESOLVED by the Michigan Veterinary Medical Association that the administration of all biological products to animals, other than to livestock, be by or under the supervision of a licensed veterinarian.

FURTHER RESOLVED by the Michigan Veterinary Medical Association that the sale of any animal biological product, that is required by law to be administered by or under the supervision of a licensed veterinarian, be sold only by or on the prescription of a licensed veterinarian.

ABOUT THE RESOLUTION
Vaccines are complicated products that can significantly alter the immune system of an animal. They require proper storage and handling to be effective. The improper administration not only renders the product ineffective, it subjects the animal to unnecessary discomfort and the possibility of severe health risks. There are indications, contra-indications, and occasional allergic reactions associated with the routine administration of biological products. There is need for the proper disposal of the materials associated with the administration of biological products, such as syringes. This is a procedure that requires supervision of a licensed health professional, as required by the Michigan Public Health Code.

Live or modified live virus vaccines represent an additional health risk if administered improperly. Adverse reactions may include induction of disease with risk of spread to other animals, including humans. The exemption under the Michigan Public Health Code that allows agricultural enterprises to use unlicensed individuals to vaccinate livestock, is acceptable and understandable.

Livestock industries would be expected to use consultation and training by appropriate veterinary medical advisors in performing the procedure, as the economic consequences for improper administration could be horrendous. The same would not be true of the average pet owner.

Reviewed 5/17/06 Companion Animal Practice Committee

Promotion of Biological Products

Approved by the MVMA Board of Directors 12/9/92

Although the sale of some small animal biological products (vaccines) may be legal without prescription under federal and state laws, the Michigan Veterinary Medical Association (MVMA) suggests the following be carefully considered before electing to sell these products to the general public.

It is necessary to be in compliance with federal and state laws including, but not limited to Act 466, PA 1988, as amended, and Act 134, PA 1929 in order to distribute and sell animal biological products.

There can be a wide range of adverse reactions to animal biological products. These reactions may be as mild as depression, lethargy, anorexia (inappetence), or pyrexia (fever); or as severe as anaphylaxis, vomiting, shock, coma, or death. Untrained persons attempting to vaccinate an animal may not recognize symptoms of potentially health-threatening reactions to biological products.

The number one lawsuit against veterinarians, decided in favor of the plaintiff (client), results from injury to an owner during the administration of vaccines. The probability of injury to both human and animal will certainly increase if an inexperienced person attempts to administer a vaccine.

Proper storage and handling of vaccines, both before and after purchase, as well as proper administration is essential if the vaccine is to be effective.
The administration of certain vaccines to a sick animal may exacerbate the disease. Some vaccines are also contraindicated during pregnancy. For example, if a pregnant cat is vaccinated against feline panleukopenia, the kittens may develop severe brain injury (cerebellar hypoplasia) and be neurologically impaired for life.

The improper disposal of needles and syringes used to administer vaccines is both a health and environmental risk. Used needles are a hazard to those coming in contact to them, particularly children and refuse disposal personnel.
An effective preventive health care program for animals includes more than the administration of a vaccine. A veterinarian-client-patient relationship is essential to initiate other health care procedures and a program to ensure appropriate re-vaccination (boosters) is necessary.

The distribution of potent injectable products to the general public, such as insulin, currently is not considered appropriate without a doctor-patient relationship. Likewise, encouraging owners to attempt to immunize their animals with injectable biological products, without veterinary consultation, is not in the best interests of the animal. It presents risks to both the animal and the owner, as well as liability considerations for the seller.

Reviewed 5/17/06 Companion Animal Practice Committee

Animal Fighting

Revised by the MVMA Animal Welfare Committee on 8/30/12
Approved by the MVMA Board of Directors on 9/27/12

The Michigan Veterinary Medical Association condemns animal fighting as defined by Michigan law. MVMA supports strict enforcement of existing law at the felony level. The MVMA encourages veterinarians to recognize the signs of animal fighting and to assist with enforcement and education. When signs of animal fighting exist, MVMA encourages veterinarians to contact the appropriate authorities.

The Recommended Use of Animals in Education and Research

Approved by the MVMA Board of Directors on December 12, 2012

The Michigan Veterinary Medical Association (MVMA) recognizes that veterinarians have a commitment not only to animal health and welfare, but also to the promotion of public health and advancement of medical knowledge. The MVMA supports the humane and responsible use of animals in education, research, and outreach. Furthermore, the MVMA supports the policies and procedures used by institutional animal use and care committees to assure animals are used judiciously and treated humanely.

The MVMA supports the Five Freedoms of Animal Welfare modified from those originally described by the Brambell Report. Further the MVMA believes the Five Freedoms form a framework that allows assessment and continuous improvement of animal welfare. These freedoms are:

  1. Freedom from Hunger and Thirst - by ready access to fresh water and a diet to maintain full health and vigor.
  2. Freedom from Discomfort - by providing an appropriate environment including shelter and a comfortable resting area.
  3. Freedom from Pain, Injury or Disease - by prevention or rapid diagnosis and treatment.
  4. Freedom to Express Normal Behavior - by providing sufficient space, proper facilities and for social species company of the animal's own kind.
  5. Freedom from Fear and Distress - by ensuring conditions and treatment which avoid mental and physical suffering.

The MVMA supports improved identification systems for companion animals designed to prevent their unintentional, unauthorized or illegal use.

The MVMA supports strict enforcement of the regulations addressing the use of animals in education, research and outreach and encourages adequate funding for enforcement of regulations. Furthermore, the MVMA promotes the continued review and modification of these regulations. 

Position Statement on Animal Sentience

Approved by the MVMA Board of Directors on August 4, 2013

The Michigan Veterinary Medical Association supports the concept of animals as sentient beings . Animals are conscious and have the ability to feel, perceive and have subjective experiences . The evidence of sentience is supported by biological, medical, behavioral, evolutionary and welfare science. Daily and long term management, husbandry and veterinary care should not only provide for the animals physical needs , but also minimize pain , distress, and suffering. Caretakers should also consider the animal’s social and behavioral needs, and recognize that animals generate responses to external stimuli or triggering situations.

Integrated Principles for Developing and Evaluating Policies, Resolutions and Actions Regarding Animal Welfare 

Approved by the MVMA Board of Directors on December 12, 2012

1. The MVMA supports the humane use of animals for the benefit of society through companionship, food, fiber, therapy, exhibition, work, recreation, research, and education.

2. The MVMA recognizes the ethical obligation to strive for optimum animal welfare in all situations where animals are used for the benefit of society.

3. The MVMA promotes humane care and handling of animals through advocacy and education and believes this is a responsibility of the veterinary profession.

4. The MVMA supports the Five Freedoms of Animal Welfare modified from those originally described by the Brambell Report. Further, the MVMA believes the Five Freedoms form a framework that allows assessment and continuous improvement of animal welfare.

These freedoms are:

  1. Freedom from Hunger and Thirst - by ready access to fresh water and a diet to maintain full health and vigor.
  2. Freedom from Discomfort - by providing an appropriate environment including shelter and a comfortable resting area.
  3. Freedom from Pain, Injury or Disease - by prevention or rapid diagnosis and treatment.
  4. Freedom to Express Normal Behavior - by providing sufficient space, proper facilities and for social species, company of the animal's own kind.
  5. Freedom from Fear and Distress - by ensuring conditions and treatment which avoid mental and physical suffering.

5. The MVMA believes medical and surgical practices, and management and husbandry systems should minimize pain, discomfort and distress. This should be accomplished by using current scientific and evidence-based data and expert opinion.

6. The MVMA recognizes animal welfare requires responsible ownership, skilled animal handling and stockmanship, and when needed, humane and painless death. 

Recommended Policy Regarding Disclosure - After Death Care

Approved by the MVMA Board of Directors on 3/16/94

The MVMA supports full disclosure to the owner, all of the arrangements regarding the disposition of a deceased pet. The MVMA supports legislation that assures owners that whatever is represented by the pet cemetery, is performed.

Reviewed 5/17/06 Companion Animal Practice Committee

Delegation of the Use of Drugs in Animal Control

Approved by the MVMA Board of Directors on 9/19/01

Entities responsible for the capture and control of stray animals frequently have a need to use chemical restraint. As these drugs are prescription drugs, usually controlled substances, they can only be used by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian.

The delegation requirements in the administrative rules for veterinary medicine are more stringent than those for other health professions, in that they prohibit delegating without prior examination of the animal. They further require the veterinarian to observe the procedure to extent necessary to ensure that the activities of the delegatee are within the scope of the orders. Compliance with these rules is impossible to accomplish in many instances where chemical restraint is indicated in animal control unless the veterinarian is, or accompanies, the animal control agent.

Recognizing these difficulties, MVMA would support action to amend the veterinary rules to allow a veterinarian to delegate the administration of animal control drugs without the required prior examination and direct supervision. The veterinarian and the delegatee would still have to comply with the training, supervision, and monitoring requirements spelled out in the Michigan Public Health Code.

Reviewed 5/17/06 Companion Animal Practice Committee

Position Statement on Ear Cropping and Tail Docking

Approved by the MVMA Board of Directors on December 12, 2012

The MVMA opposes routine ear cropping or tail docking of dogs for cosmetic reasons. The Michigan Veterinary Medical Association encourages the elimination of ear cropping and tail docking from breed standards. Veterinarians should counsel and educate dog owners that these procedures are not medically necessary. 

Position Statement on the Euthanasia of Dogs and Cats in Animal Shelters

Unanimously Approved by the MVMA Board of Directors on June 5, 2013

The MVMA believes that all animals, including homeless and shelter dogs and cats, should be treated humanely and with dignity and respect and recommends that shelters develop an ongoing relationship with a licensed veterinarian.

Euthanasia should only be performed by trained individuals using commercially manufactured, pre-mixed euthanasia solution. Stress and anxiety should be minimized by the use of pre-euthanasia sedation when necessary and sedatives should be incorporated into the euthanasia protocol.

For adult dogs and cats it is preferred that euthanasia solution should be given intravenously; intra-peritoneal injection isacceptable for cats, kittens, and small puppies.

Intra-cardiac injection of euthanasia solution is only acceptable if the animal is unconscious or anesthetized. The use of carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide gas for euthanasia of shelter dogs and cats is not acceptable.

Feeding Wild Deer – Concern Regarding Spreading Diseases

Approved by the MVMA Board of Directors on 7/1/99

The Michigan Veterinary Medical Association (MVMA) is very concerned over the spread of bovine tuberculosis in the Michigan deer herd and the subsequent spread to livestock and other state wildlife. As the transmission of tuberculosis is increased significantly by close contact of animals, the MVMA supports measures to eliminate activities that encourage the unnatural congregation of deer, such as supplemental feeding.

Reviewed 5/17/06 Companion Animal Practice Committee

Feline Rabies

Approved by the MVMA Board of Directors 3/18/98

All Michigan cats should be vaccinated against rabies. This has become necessary because of the large number of reported rabid animals throughout the United States, with reported rabies cases in cats outnumbering cases in any other domestic animal. States affected by raccoon rabies epidemics have experienced significant spillover into livestock and companion animals. The outbreak of raccoon rabies has extended to Ohio, where it is now established.

This recommendation for rabies vaccination of all cats has also been made by the Michigan Rabies Working Group, The National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians (Compendium of Rabies Control, 1998), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American Veterinary Medical Association.

Reaffirmed by the Public Health Committee in 2005 

In support of Mandatory Continuing Education

Approved by the MVMA Board of Directors March 19, 2008

The Michigan Veterinary Medical Association supports mandatory continuing education (CE) to advance the knowledge and standards of practice for veterinarians in Michigan. The Board of Veterinary Medicine, through the Bureau of Health Professions, has requested the right to mandate CE in Michigan for veterinarians and veterinary technicians. The MVMA concurs with this right and supports this concept. However, because of the variety of roles filled by veterinary professionals, a mandatory CE program with a wide range of acceptable educational experiences is desirable. In addition, the program should be simple, minimally invasive, uncomplicated, and inexpensive with documentation relying on the honor system, as exists in most other states.

Talking points:

  1. Over 80% of MVMA members have indicated via surveys that they support mandatory CE.
  2. The public consistently rates veterinary medicine as one of the most respected and trusted professions.
  3. Requiring professional continuing education makes a simple, but important, statement to the public that we genuinely care about providing the best care to their animals and that we are earning their trust.
  4. Because the veterinarian is in the first line of defense in the face of bioterrorism and newly emerging infectious and foreign animal diseases (ie. Mad Cow Disease, Avian Flu, West Nile Virus), is of utmost importance that veterinarians continue to be informed through CE of disease entities that may not have been presented in his or her veterinary school experience.
  5. Because the veterinarian is in the first line of defense in the face of many potential zoonotic disease-related public health problems in Michigan (ie. Brucellosis, Tuberculosis, Rabies, Equine Encephalitis), the veterinarian must continue to be informed through CE of the status and his or her role in the control of these disease situations.
  6. Michigan remains one of only two states in the United States that does not require CE as a requirement of re-licensure. This is an embarrassment to the State of Michigan as well as the veterinary profession.
  7. The MVMA has been committed to mandatory CE for over 20 years. The Board of Veterinary Medicine submitted a proposal to the State of Michigan for a CE model based on nationally accepted principles. This model is acceptable to the MVMA.
  8. Because of the diversity of our profession, veterinarians largely must regulate themselves. Expected quality of care by the public, interest in the welfare of our patients, and penalties imposed by the Board of Veterinary Medicine drive the veterinarian to improve standards of practice though continuing education.
  9. The Continuous Professional Development (CPD) Model proposed by the State of Michigan goes beyond standard continuing education requirements and dictates an admission of areas of professional deficiency, a self created learning plan, testing or assessment of the educational experience and web based reporting of all of these. The CPD Model, while laudable for licensees in technical positions with limited scope of knowledge and with a meticulously defined task, is a poor choice for the most diverse of health professions.
  10. Veterinary medicine is a diverse profession with doctors serving in many capacities. To create one standard model for professional development with self created learning plans and arbitrary assessments that attempt to encompass all aspects of practice is destined for failure.
  11. By its nature, a learning plan created by the licensee is bound to be biased and raises issues of confidentiality.
  12. There is no precedent for continued assessment for veterinary licensure in Michigan or any other state in the United States.
  13. Michigan is facing a documented shortage of food animal veterinarians. A CPD Model could cause further erosion of the veterinary pool. Loss of MSU graduates to states where no competency model exists, early retirement of a documented aging veterinary population, and a complicated reciprocity issue preventing new doctors from entering our state are potential problems which could result from the CPD Model. 

Microchip Identification of Animals

Approved by the MVMA Board of Directors 3/15/95

The Michigan Veterinary Medical Association endorses the concept of electronic identification for animals within the state of Michigan, however, until safety, efficacy, technological compatibility and a host of other issues are resolved, no endorsement on a specific system or manufacturer will be made. Before an endorsement will be considered:

There MUST be a minimum standard for identification information.

There MUST be a minimum standard for scanners so that they have the ability to detect base line identification information.

Access to the Identification records (database) MUST be universal for agencies that subscribe to the system.

The database MUST be centralized and maintained by one or more third parties.

Information released from the database should include basic owner facts, but may be limited to that defined by the vendor(s).

The system must comply with the appropriate governmental rules and regulations; i.e., FDA, USDA, MDA, DNR, USDI, etc.

The MVMA does encourage changes in the laws to acknowledge the worth and use of electronic identification systems that are consistent with national and international programs.

Reviewed 5/17/06 Companion Animal Practice Committee

Microchip Implantation in Companion Animals

Approved by the MVMA Board of Directors on 7/2/98

Microchip implantation in companion animals is a sensitive and delicate procedure with many possible undesirable effects, if performed incorrectly. These include improper positioning, infection, and damage to the microchip that may render the device ineffective.

Veterinarians and their trained staff are best qualified to implant these devices. Furthermore, veterinarians maintain the long term medical records that help facilitate the return of lost pets to their proper owners.

Therefore, it is the recommendation of the Michigan Veterinary Medical Association that, in the best interests of the client and the pet, microchip implantation in companion animals be performed by or under direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian.

Reviewed 5/17/06 Companion Animal Practice Committee 

Dangerous Dog Legislation

Approved by the MVMA Board of Directors on September 18, 2013

The MVMA supports dangerous dog legislation by state, county, or municipal governments provided that legislation does not refer to specific breeds. The MVMA recognizes that public safety must be a priority and supports dangerous dog legislation. Evidence shows that breed specific legislation does not protect public safety. 

Ownership of Dangerous Exotic Animals

Adopted by the MVMA Board of Directors on 12/10/97

RESOLVED that the Michigan Veterinary Medical Association opposes the private ownership of dangerous wild animals, primarily non domestic members of the family Felidae, the family Ursidae, and the order Primates.

ABOUT THE RESOLUTION
People acquire wild animals as pets because they regard them as a status symbol, they utilize them for intimidation purposes, and/or they mistakenly believe them to be truly affectionate pets. Owners often rapidly lose interest as the problems of puberty, sanitation, nutrition, unpleasant habits, and danger to humans appear.

Wild animals, especially wild carnivores and primates, are inherently dangerous. While they may be "tamed," they still retain the wild hunting and aggressive instincts which domestication has removed from dogs and cats. Their size, power, teeth and claws and willingness to use these qualities make wild animals dangerous to owners and bystanders alike, especially children.

Currently there is no approved rabies vaccine for wild animals (except raccoons in specific circumstances). A wild animal which bites a human will likely require euthanasia for rabies examination. Also, because of the close phylogenetic relationship between humans and non human primate, many common and potentially fatal ailments affect both and can be easily transmitted between them in a household.

The maintenance of these wild animals requires considerable expertise, experience, and resources which are rarely available to the private owner. These animals have extraordinary needs for nutrition and behavioral stimulation without which the animals suffer. They are often surgically defanged or declawed by owners to make them more acceptable pets, causing stress and permanent behavioral damage to the animals. Animals held by private owners often breed indiscriminately, resulting in more animals destined for inadequate living conditions and genetic stocks of no practical conservation value.

Accredited zoos and sanctuaries are the only institutions which currently reliably possess the necessary expertise, experience, and resources to maintain these animals. However, these institutions do not have the resources to accept all unwanted wild animals after their utility as pets is exhausted and these pets are unsuitable for release into the wild. Further the potential for carrying novel diseases to wild populations is also a threat. Most wild animals owned as pets must be euthanized when the owner no longer can or wants to care for it.

Reviewed 5/17/06 Companion Animal Practice Committee

Ownership of Wild Canine Hybrids

Approved by the MVMA Board of Directors 9/20/95

RESOLVED that the Michigan Veterinary Medical Association oppose the private ownership of animals resulting from breeding dogs (Canis familiaris) with wild, non-domesticated canids, particularly wolves and coyotes or hybrids of these animals.

ABOUT THE RESOLUTION
Cross bred animals (hybrids) resulting from breeding wild canids with domestic dogs are dangerous and unpredictable. Prominent behaviorists agree that these animals can be more dangerous than pure bred wolves.

The ownership of a wild canid-dog hybrid is already prohibited or regulated in many states. At present there are no practical tests to determine if an animal is a hybrid, therefore, a ban would be easier and more economical to enforce than regulation.

Currently, there are no rabies vaccines approved for use in hybrids. The quarantine guidelines for vaccinated dogs that bite an individual are inappropriate for a hybrid, but many are treated by veterinarians as if they were dogs. A hybrid (vaccinated or not) that bites someone must be euthanized for rabies examination.

Free-ranging hybrids may establish packs that kill livestock and game species. Free-ranging hybrids can breed with domestic dogs and pass on dangerous traits to progeny. They can breed with wild canids and jeopardize the genetic integrity of these species.

Spay and Neuter Age

Approved by the MVMA Board of Directors on 12/6/06

The MVMA believes that the age for performing ovariohysterectomies or gonadectomies in dogs and cats should be determined by the veterinarian and the pet owner, taking into consideration the health and development of the individual animal, as well as the need to stem the overpopulation problem in these species. Where the number of unwanted animals is the primary concern, the MVMA supports the concept of early (prepubertal, 8 to 16 weeks of age) spay/neuter in dogs and cats.

 

Recommended Record Requirements for Food Animal Practices

Approved by the MVMA Board of Directors on 12/6/06

There shall be documentation of a valid VCPR (veterinarian-client-patient relationship) as defined by the American Veterinary Medical Association.

Records shall be clear and retrievable and shall be maintained on either a herd (flock) or individual basis. Records can be written, electronic, on an audio recording and/or can be photographic.

Records for the individual animal, group, herd (or flock) should document: Identification (e.g. tattoo, tag number, lot number, pen number, age, name, markings, sex, species, etc.), Date, Name, Address and Telephone number of the client, Location of animals, Reason for the call including history, problem, and/or signs (e.g. routine herd health vs. emergency call), Vaccination history (when appropriate) if known, Laboratory and other reports, when appropriate,
Procedures performed (e.g. surgery, rectal palpations, etc.), Assessment documenting written or verbal (when practical) communication with the owner or his/her representative. This includes written protocol documenting recommended treatment and medications prescribed or dispensed.

Protocols developed by the veterinarian for use by the client shall be documented. This includes vaccination, treatment, diagnostic and other protocols, or as otherwise required by law.

Records shall be maintained for a minimum of 3 years from the date of the veterinarian's last visit. Original prescription forms shall be maintained for a minimum of 3 years or as otherwise required by law. 

 

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